Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Effects Of Anorexia On Eating Disorder - 944 Words

Bulimia Nervosa is an eating disorder that causes people to eat large amounts of food at one time, then they rid their body of the excess calories by purging. They do this in many ways such as the misuse of laxatives and self-induced vomiting. Bulimia usually occurs because the person feels as if they lost control of themselves while eating. They force themselves to rid of the extra calories because it makes them feel as if they have regained control of themselves. Bulimia has many different causes such as low self-esteem, and emotional problems. This disorder has many different risk factors such as anxiety, impulsivity, and anorexia. Bulimia has plenty of complications such as irregular heartbeats, low blood potassium, heart failure and death. There has been plenty of research done on this behavioral disorder to show that the effects of bulimia can be very crucial if not treated as soon as possible. The symptoms of Bulimia can cause people to change their behavior, this essay will d iscuss how the more vibrant symptoms such as low self-esteem, depression, fear, and disorders can cause the behavior to change. One of the first things that can cause someone to become bulimic is them having low-self-esteem which means that the person feels bad about them self and puts little values on their opinions and ideas. They get low self-esteem because they are not happy with the way they look or their body image. When they begin to have low self-esteem they binge because they want toShow MoreRelatedEffects Of Anorexia On Eating Disorders937 Words   |  4 Pages Binge eating is characterized by uncontrollable overeating in which people devour huge amounts of food while feeling ungovernable and incapable to stop. (HelpGuide 1) People with binge eating disorder don t have episodes of recovery like bulimia, As a result, those who suffer under the wrath of this eating disorder put on weight very quickly and are always trying to make themselves feel better about their weight. Binge eating is a coping mechanism, whereas bulimia is a compulsion where one divulgesRead MoreEffects Of Anorexia And Other Eatin g Disorders914 Words   |  4 Pagesto an eating disorder, and some will even abuse drugs that will help them lose weight. Also it may lead to self-doubt, depression, extreme dieting and even at the worst an eating disorder. Everywhere you go there is something around them that is advertising weight loss such as TV ads, weightloss ads, shakes, diet pills, weight loss apps are popping up like crazy. Statistics stats that 5 million or more girls and women in America are estimated to suffer from anorexia and other eating disorders. AnorexiaRead MoreEffects Of Anorexia Nervosa And Binge Eating Disorder ( Deans )1808 Words   |  8 Pagesthat praises eating disorders. The most common eating disorders today are bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating disorder (Deans). Although these terrible diseases are just recently being researched and cured, there have been cases documented all the way back to the eightieth century (Deans). The most research is done in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia (Perloff). Bulimia nervosa is associated with dieting, or not losing weight quickly enough, anorexia nervosa is categorizedRead MoreThe Dangerous Effects of Eating Disorders1100 Words   |  5 PagesThe Dangerous Effects of Eating Disorders You probably hear about eating disorders, and how they can be do dangerous, but what are eating disorders exactly? Eating disorders are a groups of serious conditions in which you are so preoccupied with the food that you eat and how much you weigh, you often focus on little else (http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/eating-disorders/basics/definition/con-20033575 ). There are three main types of eating disorders. Anorexia nervosa is the fear ofRead MoreAnorexia Nervosa And Its Effects On Society1514 Words   |  7 Pagescurrently suffering from Anorexia. Anorexia Nervosa is an eating disorder in which people suffering drastically restrict food intake due to an intense fear of gaining weight and a distorted body image. There has been an unfortunate increase in people suffering from Anorexia Nervosa over the past several decades. Anorexia can be caused by a combination of social, interpersonal, and psychological factors that must be resolved through treatment. Anorexia is an extremely dangerous disorder that results in deathRead MoreAnorexia Nervos A Type Of Eating Disorder1677 Words   |  7 PagesAnorexia Nervosa, a type of eating disorder, is occurring to many individuals in today’s time. To be diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa a person must meet the following criteria: going more than eight waking hours without eating, skipping meals , limiting the amount of calories being taken in, and eating as little as possible when meals are consumed (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Behaviors can be expressed to certain degrees and can ultimately be learned and acquired by other individuals.Read MoreEating Disorders And Eating Disorder1104 Words   |  5 PagesEating disorder is a serious problem happens in both men and women. Eating disorder is a sort of disease in which a person is having a strange routine of eating like consuming a huge amount of food each time they eat. This can incorporate not eating enough nourishment or indulging. Eating disorder influence many people around the world. The larger part of peoples who are dealing with this issue are ladies. A person with eating disorder issue may focus nonsensically on their weight and shape. EatingRead MoreEating Disorders : Deterioration Of The Mind1117 Words   |  5 PagesEating Disorders: Deterioration of the Mind By: Genevieve Narkiewicz Advance Placement Psychology Mr.Cuetara May 4th, 2015 Abstract Eating disorders are in no way, to be considered â€Å"no big deal†. It affects the lives of many poor unsuspecting human beings and in some cases, fatally takes lives. This topic presents many things that most people don’t know. Such as the fact that bulimia nervosa has similar symptoms to using the drug heroin! Rotten teeth, pale and dry skin, and even failingRead MoreA Brief Note On Anorexia Nervosa And Bulimia Nervosa1280 Words   |  6 PagesAnorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa Eating disorders are classified as mental disorders and can lead to life threatening damage. It is important to manage eating disorders to prevent health effects. There are many different possibilities for patients with disorders. Common treatments for eating disorders can consists of counselor or therapists. Early detection is important to limit future oral health effects. A dental hygienist has an advantage to see the inside of the mouth for possible traumaRead MoreThe Effects Of Anorexia Nervosa On The Human Body1406 Words   |  6 PagesThe Effects of Anorexia Nervosa On the Human Body Anorexia is a lack or loss of appetite for food as a medical condition and is also considered an emotional disorder categorized by an obsessive desire to lose weight by refusing to eat. Anorexia is found in all people, male and female of any age and in some cases can be life threatening. The reason Anorexia and all eating disorders in general are important to study is because they are a significant part of society. Eating disorders also hold the

Business vs. the Environment Essay - 1423 Words

Business vs. the Environment Business today has so many responsibilities. Aside from making a profit, they are forced to take on a different responsibility, one that involves the environment. Even though, they already have many regulations set by the government, they are still being asked to answer to the call of helping out the rest of society take of nature. This essay will discuss the pros and cons of corporate responsibility for the environment through the agent-of-society and agent-of-capital views. The agent-of-society view holds that corporate managers are prima facie obligated to consider the interests of everyone who is likely to be affected by what managers decide to do. With this view in mind, Michael Hoffman†¦show more content†¦Their strategy â€Å"is to get businesses to help solve environmental problems by finding profitable or virtually costless ways for them to participate.† They want to find win-win situations so that businesses will want to help. The agent-of-capital view holds that corporate managers are prima facie obligated to be an agent to the shareholders and focus on the pursuit of corporate profits within the â€Å"rules of the game† established by law and capitalist market morality. Milton Friedman’s main theory is â€Å"the social responsibility of business is to produce goods and services and to make a profit for its shareholders, while playing within the rules of the market game; to engage in open and free competition without deception or fraud.† Friedman also makes a very good point. He says that â€Å"corporation is an artificial person and in this sense may have artificial responsibilities, but ‘business’ as a whole cannot be said to have responsibilities.† Therefore, business cannot have a social conscience. Even if there are â€Å"social responsibilities,† they are the responsibilities of the individuals, not the business. These corporate executives are also people in their own right who have their own â€Å"social responsibilities,† but they are acting within the scope of their employment so they have to think of the business and the fact that they are spending someone else’s money, namely the stockholders’, the employees’, and theShow MoreRelatedUnderstanding Cultural Dimension : Strategy For Globalization Business1596 Words   |  7 Pages Understanding Cultural Dimension: Strategy for Globalisation Business The maritime industry is a kind of vast business, which usually develop into multinational business. This business will involve many people from other countries. Since, the ship moves from one to another country, communicating with people from another country with different cultures is inevitable. Culture was defined by anthropologist as learning and sharing concept, value and belief or can be said as an adaptable systemRead MoreThe Nature Of Organizations And The Contemporary Environment1294 Words   |  6 PagesModule 1: The Nature of Organizations and the Contemporary Environment Antoinette N. Gibson MGT 501/ Case Assignment #1 Trident University International Abstract Within every environment and business, culture plays a role in many different ways. In my reading I have found that culture is defined as the shared intellectual programming of the human mind which differentiates one group of individuals from another group. It has often been understood that statements about culture do not describeRead MoreCorporate Culture1466 Words   |  6 Pagespersonality of the founder or leader in a business often has a significant influence on the values that the business tries to promote; 2. the history and tradition of the business – how things have always been done (and why); 3. the type of technology used by the business and the types of goods and/or services it produces; 4. which industry/sector the business is in, and how much and what type of competition it faces; 5. the customers of the business – who they are and what they expect; 6. companyRead MoreHofstedes Improve Four Dimensions Helping Others1372 Words   |  6 Pagesvirtue, not structured activities. In the other side there’re societies with the high uncertainty avoidance characterized for don’t allow changes, established rules, just in necessary cases, experts have the better knowledge. Then is the Individualism vs Group/collectivist orientation, this dimension shows How people distribute their social life, importance of group life, goal achievements thinking in group goals or individual goals, sacrifice. For example societies like China, Japan, and ThailandRead MoreThe Characteristics Of Survival Entrepreneurs1342 Words   |  6 PagesCharacteristics of Survival Entrepreneurs The environment of survival entrepreneurs is plagued by â€Å"overcrowded market ‘niches’, negligent or predatory government agents, and multiple but volatile sources of household income,† which results in a high level of uncertainty. Due to other emergencies that they are faced with, they are faced with the need to avoid unnecessary risks. Furthermore, relationships with patrons that result in some sort of reciprocity need to be fostered in order to have a poolRead MoreEssay On Social Entrepreneur1602 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Entrepreneurs support economic activity and growth entrepreneurial process requires capabilities, such as skills, decision-making and business acumen technology entrepreneurs: the danger is having exclusive focus on the product or service without due consideration to whether it addresses a real market problem with customers who would be willing to pay for it. Schumpeter (1965): â€Å"individuals who exploit market opportunity through technical and/or organization innovation† Drucker (1985):Read MoreTraditional vs Team Environments850 Words   |  4 PagesRunning head: Traditional vs. Team Work Environments Traditional vs. Team Work Environments and the Potential for Self-Managed Teams Traditional vs Team Environments This paper will explain the differences between traditional environments and team work environments. According to Exhibit 12.1 in our text book, in the traditional environment the managers determine and plan the work, and in a team environment the managers and team members jointly determine and plan the work.   Jobs are narrowlyRead MoreUnderstanding National Culture And How Relevant Is Important Essay841 Words   |  4 Pagesthis target, it will proceed to explain these approaches one by one using different examples and concluding with the importance of these for international business. â€Æ' 2.- Approaches to National Culture Cross Cultural management explains the behaviour of people in organizations worldwide, helping managers and firms to understand how to act in business matters dealing with the different cultures. (Adler, 2008) Analysing it in depth, it is possible to identify three main frameworks: Hall’s Model, whichRead MoreThe Impact Of National Culture On The Administration And Hierarchical Conduct Of An Association Working1419 Words   |  6 Pages1. INTRODUCTION Business cultures vary from nation to nation because of the impact of its national society. The national culture is moulded by different variable rights from the beginning of that nation to the present day social changes. The social estimations of the countries have huge impact in the day to day life of individual and too in its cultural, economic, business and political environment. The effect of national culture on the administration and hierarchical conduct of an association workingRead MoreAmerica s 5d Dimensions For Vietnam And Usa1091 Words   |  5 PagesDimensions for Vietnam and USA Low Power Distance vs. High Power Distance In Vietnam there is a great disparity between those who are economically on top of the ladder and those that are below. There is virtually no middle class therefore Vietnam gets a very high power distance ranking of 70. It should be noted that in these societies that have a high power distance, trust in their managers is vitally important to sustain a good work environment. This could be due to many reasons, one that it is

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Sexual Crimes Against The Conundrum Of Marital Rape

This Term Paper has been submitted by Nitin Nair Roll no: 212139 On Women and Criminal Law Topic: Sexual Crimes against Women- The Conundrum of Marital Rape During the Monsoon Semester 2014-2015 Introduction The word â€Å"rape† is derived from the word raptus, which means to seize. It is the act of forced non-consensual sexual intercourse with a woman by coercion, fear or fraud. Rape usually include three separate factors, these factors include forced vaginal penetration, threat of violence or violence by the offender and non-consent by the victim. In Bodhisattwa Gautam v. Subhra Chakraborty , the Supreme Court described the crime of rape as ‘deathless shame and the gravest crime against human dignity’. The act of rape not only stripes her of any dignity whatsoever but also subjects the woman to a perverse physical conquest, ostracizing her from society and leading to long lasting psychological problems. Historically under Roman law, the term was used to imply theft of a woman as they were deemed to be property of their guardian and not as an individual with their own rights. Thus, the rape of a woman was a wrong against the person who had custody over her, the woman being considered as wholly owned subsidy. Understanding the concept of Marital Rape Simply put, marital rape can be defined as â€Å"forced sexual activity demanded of a wife by her husband†. There is a common assumption that society takes that rape is usually committed by a stranger and cannot beShow MoreRelatedDeath Penalty For Sex Offences3720 Words   |  15 PagesTOWARDS A BALANCED APPROACH ABSTRACT The recent spate of violent sexual crimes that rocked the country is a subject of passionate discussion. It has resulted in a nation-wide demand for the execution of sex offenders as they believe that such heinous crimes deserve nothing less than the maximum penalty. However, that would amount to equating the crime with murder which can lead to further unpleasant consequences. Also, all sexual offences do not merit the death penalty as they differ in degreesRead MoreGp Essay Mainpoints24643 Words   |  99 PagesBusiness morality b. Charities as businesses 12. Democracy a. Good vs. Bad 13. Social Issues (only stats provided) a. Gender b. Family c. Equality 14. Governance a. World Governance 15. Others a. Cooperation b. Education c. Crime d. Liberty or Security e. Consumerism 1. Media 1a. New vs. Traditional GENERAL Intro: †¢ The first quarter of 2043 will be when the last newspapers land on front process all over America. This is the prediction the author of ‘The Vanishing

Social Institutions And Its Impact On Society - 1602 Words

In the context of the overall development of an individual, social institutions in a society play an important role. There are some major social institutions which have considerable impacts on the lives of the members of society, such as religion and education. These institution act as the means of providing opportunity for the overall development of individuals. In this regard it can be said that â€Å"The role of religion is to remind republican citizens of their duties to and reliance upon God. Virtue is the bedrock of free society, and religion provides a constant reminder of that fact† (Palmer, 2008). Academic institutions, on the other hand, play the vital role of advancing cultures through knowledge and of helping to prevent socio-economic inequalities by breaking through the boundaries of human ignorance and fear (Palmer, 2008). The functionalist perspective is based on the works of Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim, Talcott Parsons, and Robert Merton. Functionalism per spective considers a society as a system of parts that work in harmony together. Each part contributes to the stability of society, which helps to maintain the balance within. The parts within a society are: family, education, politics, economics, and religion. These social institutions form and shape society while meeting the needs of its people. According to the functionalist perspective, religion has three functions in society. These three functions are: â€Å"Beliefs that some things are sacred, PracticesShow MoreRelatedSocial Institutions And Its Impact On Society919 Words   |  4 Pagesand/or inspiring sense, meaning society would benefit most from these social institutions. Conversely, I could have argued that the least influential social institutions are good and/or beneficial to our society, but our society chooses to ignore them; and the most influential social institution plague our society. However, I chose the former—the positive and/or inspiring sense of the words. Social institutions are the organized, usual, or standard ways that a society meets its basic needs (P. 104)Read MoreImpact of Media on Socio-Cultural Values and Social Institution in Indian Society10316 Words   |  42 PagesThe media, known as the fourth pillar of democracy, has a huge impact on the society. The effects are of course, positive as well as negative. Media is such a powerful tool that it literally governs the direction of our society today. It is the propeller as well as the direction provider of the society. Opinions can change overnight and celebrities can become infamous with just one wave by the media. The growth of media as an industry has accelerated over the past few years with new forms such asRead MoreRace and Ethicity within Sociology959 Words   |  4 Pagesoccurring behind the scenes within our society. Within the subtopic of race, several areas including our current culture, social psychology and the current format of our social institutions allow for the production and often the reproduction of racial discrimination in our day and age. Throughout this course, the various readings and class lectures have been very beneficial when examining the impact that racial discrimination and inequality has on our society. In this paper, I will delve into theRead MoreEssay on Social institutions765 Words   |  4 PagesThroughout the years there have been many social institutions that have made a dramatic impact on society; none more important than families. In today’s modern industrialized societies, families carry out basic necessities that other social institutions cannot . Different skills such as responsibility can also be acquired from families where it can be applied to everyday life. Furthermore families in the past needed to be the most important social institution to ensure their survival. Since the pre-industrializedRead MoreSociological Theories and Family Essay examples1662 Words   |  7 PagesSociological Theories and Family Sociological theories are important in understanding how the society operates. In addition, the theories help one understand how people in society relate with each other. The theories have helped understand various social issues in the society and made it easy to develop solutions to the problems. There are different theories that are used to explain how the society operates and how people interact with each other. Examples of the theories include functionalismRead MoreImpact Of Social Institutions On Caribbean Culture1223 Words   |  5 PagesImpact of Societal Institutions On Caribbean Culture and Society Objectives †¢ Gain a thorough understanding of the different social institutions: family, education, political systems †¢ Understand the main ideas of the Marxist and Functionalist perspectives †¢ Understand the Marxist and perspective on social institutions Functionalist Social Institutions †¢ Social Institutions are a fundamental part of the operations of society. They are the major organising framework in social life. Social institutionsRead MoreEducation As A Social Institution1196 Words   |  5 Pages A social institution is defined as a set of rules and procedures that are set for meeting important needs in a society and as a result pattern social relationships and interaction. (Palmiotto Unnithan, 2011) Each society focuses on several vital needs that must be dealt with, so the society can survive and continue. Members of the society should channel use their sexuality for procreation. There are several institutions in the society. These institutions include family, education, the governmentRead MoreSocial Institutions767 Words   |  4 PagesThroughout the years there have been many social institutions that have made a dramatic impact on society; none more important than families. In todays modern industrialized societies, families carry out basic necessities that other social institutions cannot. Different skills such as responsibility can also be acquired from families where it can be applied to everyday life. Furthermore families in the past needed to be the most important social institution to ensure their survival. Since the pre-industrializedRead MoreWithin The World Of Sociology There Are Sociological Paradigms1196 Words   |  5 Pagesdealing with social issues. These paradigms exist in order to have a basic understanding of how society functions, the role of sociology, and how different things affect social life. Social paradigms have the ability to impact social issues if they are used together in a way that allows them to work at a balance. The functional paradigm consists of different elements of society joining together to create one stable social unit (Colomy, 2013, p.33). In order to maintain stability within society, institutionsRead MoreSociological Perspectives Of Structural Functionalism1490 Words   |  6 Pages aid sociologist in gaining a broader understanding for purposes of this paper –religion (as a primarily social rather than theological or psychological phenomenon) and the effects on societies. In looking at how religion functions in social structures, social systems, and small group interpersonal interactions sociologists could formulate a better understanding of religion s role in society and the human experience. The sociologist looks at the individual agency, and how that connects to a specific

John The Savage Brave New World Essay Example For Students

John The Savage Brave New World Essay Brave New World by Aldous Huxley is a novel that takes place in Utopia. Yet in this ideal place everyone is conditioned to be happy, it is a place where various things such as the arts are restricted so all people will be synchronized in thinking. Love and commitment does not exist but rather everyone belongs to everyone else. This place is also a place where soma holidays help people escape from their realities and never have its society feel any kind of distress or illness. This place was not Utopia to John the Savage, it was rather a place of hell and torment which none of the things he enjoyed and loved existed. In the novel, freedom of the individual will is one of the fundamental beliefs at the root of human ideals. While the environment or the public world (society) plays some part in forming the psyche of an individual, it is in the end, the choice of the individual (John) to be who they become The whole concept of Brave New World contradicts to everything John ever believed in. John came from a world where art and expression of variation from the society existed. People must face their problems and overcome them, and love requires commitment and is greatly appreciated. John was rather a Renaissance man trapped in a world where none of his necessities in life existed. He was disgusted at their orgy-porgies, their belief of take, take, take not give, give, give. Total happiness did not exist to John in a world which lacked expression of the arts. It was rather total torment. Throughout the novel John continues to fight and believe for what he believes in while the surrounding environment continues to pressure him and submerge him into Utopian ways of life. The conflicts which were faced upon his arrival were of devastation. His life grew lonelier and lonelier each day with his dissatisfaction with the crude nature and refined society of the Utopians. He was trapped in a tedious world where there was nothing to do. John symbolizes the artist or the believer striving for ecstasy. Yet in a world of synchronized life, lack of arts, unrequited love, and runaways it is impossible to find ecstasy. He finds nothing worth living for in the ordinary world and strongly regrets his leave of the reservation in coming to this boring world. Clearly he is the image of a man trying to liberate himself from his own egotism. Unable to cope with his problems, and to end his infinite sadness, John commits suicide. His death was the result of the torment and suffering from Utopia or his own hell. His individual will slowly diminished against the pressures of Utopian ways. As a final resort John takes soma and partakes in an orgy-porgy. This was of great devastation to John. Everything, which he ever believed in, in his fight against the pressures of Utopia, was shattered in a split second. He had failed his personal egotism was defeated and the dread and horror of this defeat was overwhelming. Rather than living the rest of his life fighting Utopia and sticking with primitive ways of lunacy, nor turning to the insanity of Utopia with science controlling his life, death was his third and best option to end his torment and suffering. It can be seen that freedom of the individual will and controlling pressures of the environment does affect psyche of a person. In Johns case his individual will was challenged by societys pressures. Yet in the end, it was his own choice to be what they become: deceased, rather than live with science affecting human individuals in the insanity of Utopia, nor living in the primitive world of the lunacy Indian Reservation. Freedom of the individual will is one of the fundamental beliefs at the root of human ideals. .u801d479f3e572e1d3cbe9cecdab27bfe , .u801d479f3e572e1d3cbe9cecdab27bfe .postImageUrl , .u801d479f3e572e1d3cbe9cecdab27bfe .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u801d479f3e572e1d3cbe9cecdab27bfe , .u801d479f3e572e1d3cbe9cecdab27bfe:hover , .u801d479f3e572e1d3cbe9cecdab27bfe:visited , .u801d479f3e572e1d3cbe9cecdab27bfe:active { border:0!important; } .u801d479f3e572e1d3cbe9cecdab27bfe .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u801d479f3e572e1d3cbe9cecdab27bfe { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u801d479f3e572e1d3cbe9cecdab27bfe:active , .u801d479f3e572e1d3cbe9cecdab27bfe:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u801d479f3e572e1d3cbe9cecdab27bfe .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u801d479f3e572e1d3cbe9cecdab27bfe .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u801d479f3e572e1d3cbe9cecdab27bfe .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u801d479f3e572e1d3cbe9cecdab27bfe .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u801d479f3e572e1d3cbe9cecdab27bfe:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u801d479f3e572e1d3cbe9cecdab27bfe .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u801d479f3e572e1d3cbe9cecdab27bfe .u801d479f3e572e1d3cbe9cecdab27bfe-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u801d479f3e572e1d3cbe9cecdab27bfe:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Essay about Fracking And Its Impact On The Environment EssayWhile the environment or the public world (society) plays some part in forming the psyche of an individual, it is in the end, the choice of the individual to be who they become. This is reflected by John the Savage, in Aldous Huxleys Brave New World. The nature of Johns conflict involves his personal beliefs and the contrasting Utopians beliefs. Being from a world of art individuality, and literature, John is in great disappointment upon his arrival at the boring, ordinary Utopian world. Art, individuality, and literature do not exist. There is lack of variation among the refined social class. Sex is rather a pastime event and is not something that is cherished or appreciated. Also, stress and illness are not felt because of runaways on soma holidays. All which contradict to Johns personal beliefs. His death was very symbolic in that a man choosing between life in insanity where advancement in science has affected the way society lives or life in . When his individual will slowly diminished he finally turned to Utopian ways by taking soma and partaking in an orgy-porgy. When he finally realized what he had done he killed himself. Yet John did have alternatives to suicide: either continue to live a life of insanity in Utopia where advancement in science has affected the way of society; or to go back to the primitive lunacy life at the Indian Reservation where. John could not endure either alternative, hence he came up with a third choice of sanity: suicide.

Capital Structure and Corporate Performance

Question: Discuss about the Capital Structure and Corporate Performance. Answer: Introduction: Boral limited deals in construction and building material throughout various countries. The company employs more than 12,000 employees across 600 operation places and having $4.31 billion sales as per the financial statement of 2016. Boral is a multinational company with having their business in United States, Asia and Australia and having their head office in Sydney, Australia. Capital structure: Capital structure provides the information related to the structure of capital of the company, their risk exposure, how the risks affect the financial position and performance of the company and the way company manage the risk. The capital structure of the company consists of equity and debt. As per the financial statement of 2016, the companys capital structure comprised of total equities amounted to $3,506.30 million and total debt including short-term as well as long-term amounting to $ 1345.20 million. They have total reserves amounting to $ 162 million as on 30th June 2016. As on 30th June 2015, the companys capital structure comprised of total equities amounted to $3,524.10 million and total debt including short-term as well as long-term amounting to $ 1322.60 million. On 1st July 2015, a syndicate loan facility amounted to US$ 400 million was established to provide more liquidity for corporate purposes. The maturity date of the loan facility is scheduled on 1st July 2010. Howe ver, as on 30th June 2016 the facility stands undrawn. The company also has a unsecured overdraft facility amounting to A$ 20 million ((Boral Annual Report 2016). The capitalization ratio of the company, calculated as [Long-term debt/ (Long-term debt + shareholders equity)] come as 27.26% for 2015 and 22.04% for 2016. The decreasing capitalization ratio indicates that the company was able to decrease their long-term borrowing over the year from $1320.8 million to $ 992.80 million. It indicates that the company is well positioned to pay off their long-term loans as and when they become due (Mittal 2013). Risk management: The business activities of the company are exposed to various financial risks like liquidity, interest rate, foreign currency, credit and risks of commodity prices. These risks managed through derivative instruments. The financial instruments or derivatives are not used by the company for speculative or trading purposes and are controlled by the board of directors of the company (Zeitun and Tian 2014). Credit risk: Credit risk is the risk that will be exposed to if the counterparty fails to fulfil any liabilities. The company is exposed to credit risks from cash at bank, financial instruments and trade or other receivables. The credit risk of the company is monitored through the policy of counterparty credit risk and is observed on regular basis (Baghai, Servaes and Tamayo 2013). Credit risk related to derivative contracts and cash in bank is minimised through counterparties that possess credit rating higher than A-/A3. However, an amount of AS$20 million or 10% total asset, whichever is lower is to be deposited with the counterparties who possesses a rating less than A-/A3. Liquidity risk: The company is exposed to liquidity risk when they does not have sufficient funds to pay off their financial liabilities on becoming due. It also involves the future planning for business risks and unpredicted events that may results into pressure on the liquidity of the company (Imbierowicz and Rauch 2014). Boral limited manages their liquidity risks through the following: Their debt profile is well spread with a target maturity period of more than 3.5 years. They have cash plus facilities from committed undrawn amounted to more than A$ 500 million Current debt less deposits of cash not be more than 20% of total sum of committed undrawn facilities that have more than 1 year of maturity period and total debt. Foreign currency risk: Foreign currency risk is the exposure to fluctuations in currency rate arising from raw material purchase, interest expense of borrowing from nonAustralian dollar, receivables from export, payables for import and investment related transactions (Corazza and Malliaris 2015). The foreign currency risk is managed through: The company makes sure that the foreign currency exposures amounting to more than A$ 0.5 million must be fully hedged at the time of approval from Capex Net investment inclusive of intercompany loans must be hedged wherever the hedge instruments and regulatory conditions permit. If the operational foreign currency exposures are hedged, it must not exceed 75% for 1st year, 50% for 2nd year and the maximum allowed period for hedging is 2 years. Asset financing policy: Total assets of the company including of non-current assets and current assets as on 30th June 2016 amounted to $5,800.50 million. Self-constructed assets are inclusive of cost of direct labour, raw material and any other cost incurred for preparing the asset for its intended use. The payments made for the assets financed through operating lease are accounted under straight line method over the lease term, except where any alternative method are recognised to be more appropriate. Minimum lease payments are inclusive of fixed rate for increase. For the year ended 30th June 2016 the rental charges for operating lease amounted to $73.9 million as compared to $ 75.5 million for 2015. It means the company has not taken any asset under lease and the due lease payments are paid-off on time. It also indicates that the company is financially viable to pay off their dues on time. Distribution policy: Level: the dividend paid for the year ended 30th June 2016 was amounted to $ 154.20 million as compared to $129.10 million for the year ended 30th June 2015. Dividend payment for the company was as follows: Year 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Dividends in AUD 0.19 0.11 0.17 0.22 0.27 Payout ratio (%) 87.10 74.20 - 141.50 76.30 Table 1: Distribution ratio (Source: Boral Annual Report 2016, 2017) It can be seen from the above table that the dividend payment of the company has been increased over the year from 2014 to 2016 and increased from AUD 0.17 to AUD 0.27. however, the payout ratio has decreased to almost half to 76.30% in 2016 as compared to the 141.50% of 2015. The dividends of the company comprised of interim dividend and final dividend and are paid in time. Dividend payment: Form: For the shareholders who have registered address in New Zealand and Australia will be paid the dividend through direct credit to their nominated bank account only rather than through posted check to the registered address. The shareholders can always update their bank account through contacting the share registration office or visiting their websites. However, for those who does not possess any registered address in New Zealand and Australia wish to get their dividend directly in their bank account, credit union account or building society in New Zealand or Australia, they must contact the share registration office or visit their websites. The payment are directly credited electronically on the date of dividend payment and is confirmed through payment advice that are posted to the registered address of the shareholders. Shareholders are also advised to deposit the cheque of dividend payment as early as possible otherwise the cheque has to handed over to the Chief Commissioner o f State Revenue under Unclaimed Money Act 1995. Stability: Boral has assured their shareholders to pay the dividend on continuous basis. As per the announcement made on 10th February 2016, to offer more clarity, the board of directors has formalised the dividend policy that is proposed to reward the stakeholders with regard to the profit and maintaining the capital growth at the same time. The board decided to pay out and maintain a dividend payout ratio ranging from 50% to 70% of income before considerable items, with regard to the financial position of the company (Kamyabi and Noushabadi, 2014). A payout ratio of 50% to 70% is considered as high as the company is paying more than half of their earning as dividend. It implies that the the company will maintain lower level of retained earnings. From the investors perspective, a high rate of dividend is very good, however, at the same time it is considered as bad for the company as the low level of earnings will give less scope for the company for new plans for capital expenditures , which in turn, will limit the ability of the company for dividend growth in future. Therefore, it will be ideal for the company to maintain healthy payout ratio that is ranging between 35% and 55%. High ration of dividend is attractive over short-term period but over the long-run it will not be considered good and beneficial for the company. The company can also go for revising their payout ratio, if they are looking for earning pick up or hybrid value (Li, Zhuang and Shapiro 2014). Reference: Baghai, R., Servaes, H. and Tamayo, A., 2013. Have rating agencies become more conservative? Implications for capital structure and debt pricing. Boral Annual Report 2016. (2017). 1st ed. Australia: https://www.boral.com.au/. Corazza, M. and Malliaris, A.T.G., 2015. Multi-fractality in foreign currency markets. Imbierowicz, B. and Rauch, C., 2014. The relationship between liquidity risk and credit risk in banks.Journal of Banking Finance,40, pp.242-256. Kamyabi, Y. and Noushabadi, S.Z., 2014. The impact of Corporate Governance on Dividend Payment Policy: empirical evidence from Iranian Listed Companies.Miicema 2014 organising committee, p.380. Li, S., Zhuang, A. and Shapiro, D., 2014.Dividend Payout Policy and Institutional Investors Ownership: Theory and Empirical Evidence. Working Paper, Belk College of Business. Mittal, R., 2013. The Effects of Market Capitalization Ratio on GDP Growth and Capital Market Robustness in Newly Industrialized Countries.Undergraduate Businesss Journal,4, pp.45-54. Zeitun, R. and Tian, G.G., 2014. Capital structure and corporate performance: evidence from Jordan.

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Contingency approach of management Essay Example

Contingency approach of management Essay Contingency approach of management puts more concern on the changing circumstance, internal and external, formal and informal, thus it provides the opportunities to have to comprehensive over-view on the situation, and helps the management to choose appropriate actions adapting to or affecting environment. The contingency approach advocates selecting a management response from among various alternatives, based on the characteristics of the specific situation. It holds that the key to becoming a successful manager is the ability to diagnose a situation correctly. According to the contingency approach, the nature of the organizations environment, its size, its technology, the character of its markets, its legal charter, its personnel, and other factors not only confront the organization with problems but simultaneously offer opportunities. Thus organizations should adapt to situations. The contingency approach holds that different kinds of structures, rewards systems, and change strategies are appropriate responses to different situations. Another advantage of using the contingency approach comes from the recognition that an organizations environment is constantly changing. Managers must recognize and adapt to the changes occurring both inside and outside the organization. O14 Contingency approach suggests adapting different structure and system of management to the situations, but just as it stated, no best suitable model, even the contingency approach itself. This approach over emphasised on viability, while without taking many attention on the costs of managerial activities and system stability: We will write a custom essay sample on Contingency approach of management specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Contingency approach of management specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Contingency approach of management specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The continual shifting among different structure and system of management will be time consuming and costly. Since organization participators develop their vested benefits throughout the management stage, and they will also tend to protect it form being reduced or rejected by changing circumstance. When a project team work is being carried out, department manager may worry about his appointed departmental tasks, thus hesitate to promote staffs involvement. The managerial level then has to spend time on smoothing conflicts and integrating cooperation. One reason may bring about different situations. For instance, job dissatisfaction, work delay or bad performance can all be caused by only a wrong managerial decision. Concentrating on the improvement methods of those different situations may mislead the manager to take appropriate actions (like job reallocation or coercive commanding), while forgetting the root problems. Unfortunately, his management modification can also greatly impact the stability of original system. Stability, as my point of view, is one of the basic elements which ensure the system to work effectively. As stated by Vecchio, the contingency approach emphasis on it depends, however, this does not mean to be evasive, but assuming that there is numerous of important dependencies and acknowledges that the statement of managerial behaviour must also be complex O15. A good structure and system of management must be evaluated by both effectiveness and efficiency. On the base of its inherent stable formation, it should not only be adapted to a considerable wide range of variability (which can be forecasted by the companys experience or expectancy), but also has the capacity of adapting to certain appropriate structure and system of management.